With the acceleration of global economic integration and information networking, in order to meet the identification and efficient recognition of individual items, the Auto-ID Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with the support of the Uniform Code Council (UCC), proposes to construct a system covering everything in the world based on the computer Internet, using RFID and With the support of the Uniform Code Council (UCC), the lab proposes to construct a system that covers everything in the world based on the computer Internet, using RFID and wireless communication technology, and also proposes the concept of Electronic Product Code (EPC).
In other words, each object will be assigned a unique EPC and will be managed and linked to each other by an information system using RFID technology: data transmission and data storage are handled by the EPC network.
Subsequently, the European Article Numbering Association (EAN) and the Uniform Code Council (UCC) jointly established the non-profit organization EPC Global in September 2003 to integrate EPC into the Globally Harmonized System of Identity (GHS), which is a perfect combination of the GTIN (Global Trade Item Code) coding system and the EPC concept.
EPC Global describes the Internet of Things (IoT) as consisting of an EPC coding system, an RFID system and an EPC information network system.
1.EPC coding system
The IoT realizes the real-time sharing of global item information. Obviously, the first thing to do is to realize the unified encoding of global goods, that is, to any product produced anywhere on earth, it should be tagged with an electronic label. In this electronic label carries an electronic product code, and the global unique. The electronic label represents the basic identification information of the item, such as “A company in B time in C place production of D products of the E piece”. At present, the EPC code supported by Europe and the United States and the UID code supported by Japan are two common electronic product coding system.
RFID system includes EPC tag and read-write. EPC tag is the carrier of the number (the unique number of each commodity, i.e. license plate), when the EPC tag is attached to the item or embedded in the item, the item and the EPC tag in the product electronic code establishes a one-to-one mapping relationship.
EPC label from the essence is an electronic label, through the RFID read-write can realize to the EPC label in the memory information reading. This memory information is usually the product electronic code product electronic code by the read-write up to the Internet of things middleware, after processing stored in the distributed database.
The user inquires the item letter item in the address bar of the supply chain network browser, enters the item name, the manufacturer and the supplier and other data, can be informed in real time the item in the supply chain status. At present, involved in this part of the standard also has developed, which includes the electronic label package standard and the electronic label and the read-write between the data interaction standard and so on.
3.EPC information network system
EPC information network system includes EPC middleware, EPC information discovery service and EPC information service (EPCIS) three parts.
(1) EPC middleware
In order to realize the standardization of each small application environment or system and the communication between them, a common platform and interface must be set up between the backstage application system and the reader, which is usually called middleware. downlink to the RFID reader.
EPC middleware uses standard protocols and interfaces, and is the link between RFID readers and information systems. Currently, the application-level event (ALE) standard is under development.
2) EPC information discovery service
EPC information discovery service (Discovery Service) including ONS and supporting services, which is based on EPC, access to EPC data access channel information. At present, the root ONS system and the supporting discovery service system are entrusted by EPC Global to Verisign for operation and maintenance, and the standard for the port is being formed.
3) EPC Information Service The software support system of EPC system in EPC Information Service (EPCIS) is used to realize the end-user interaction of EPC information in the IoT environment. the press port and standard of EPCIS will provide a whole set of standard interface for EPC data, once the EPCIS standard is recognized, it is very likely to bring a great impetus to the development of RFID industry, thus giving Capture and share the information collected by the wireless frequency word recognition chip business provides a standard way.
EPC IoT architecture is mainly composed of EPC code, EPC tag and RFID reader, in the same piece of system, ONS server and EPCIS server and other parts.
The basic architecture of an enterprise IoT application system consists of RFID identification system, middleware system and computer Internet system. Among them, RFID identification system contains EPC tag and RFID reader, both communicate through RFID air interface: EPC tag is attached to each item. The middleware system contains EPCIS, PML and ONS and its cache system, and its background application database system also contains ERP system, etc.; the middleware system is connected to the computer Internet, which can track, query, modify or increase or decrease data in a timely and effective manner.
To sum up, the EPC system is based on the computer Internet, and the EPC middleware, ONS and EPCIS are used to realize the global interconnection of things.